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Revised National Curriculum Statement Grades R-9 (Schools)

Grade Nine

Learning Area: Technology
( Further information on the Outcomes for this Learning Area )

Learning Outcome 1:  Technological Processes and Skills

The learner will be able to apply technological processes and skills ethically and responsibly using appropriate information and communication technology.

Assessment standards

We know this when the learner:

    • Identifies and explains a problem, need or opportunity from a given real-life context, and investigates the context, the nature of the need, the environmental situation, and the people concerned.
    • Analyses existing products relevant to an identified problem, need or opportunity based on:
      • safety;
      • suitability of materials;
      • fitness for purpose;
      • cost;
      • manufacturing method.
    • Develops and performs practical testing procedures to determine or compare the suitability or fitness for purpose of relevant properties of materials, electrical or mechanical systems, structures, processes or finished products.
    • Uses a variety of available technologies and methods to:
      • locate (e.g. use library referencing system, database searches, indexes);
      • collect (e.g. questionnaires, data collection forms, requests for information, information, searches, literature surveys);
      • compare;
      • sort;
      • verify;
      • evaluate (e.g. cross-checking different sources or resources);
      • store information (e.g. filing systems, indexes).

    • Writes or communicates a short and clear statement or a design brief for the development of a product or system related to a context, problem, need or opportunity that has been identified by self.
    • Lists product and design specifications and constraints for a solution to an identified problem, need or opportunity based on all of the design key words listed below:
      • people: age, target market, human rights, access;
      • purpose: function, what the product will do;
      • appearance and aesthetics: form, colour, shape, feel;
      • environment: where product will be used or made, impact on the environment in the long and short term;
      • safety: for users and manufacturers;
      • cost: cost of materials, wastage, cost of manufacture, maximum selling price;
      • ergonomics;
      • quality;
      • production: mass production, batch production, one-off production.
    • Generates a range of possible solutions that are significantly different from each other, and that show clear links to the design brief and the specifications and constraints.
    • Chooses possible solutions based on well-reasoned argument related to the specifications and personal opinions, and develops a chosen idea using graphics.

    • Develops plans for making that include all of the following:
      • resource lists (e.g. materials lists, tools, people, costs);
      • formal drawings showing dimensions or quantities (e.g. orthographic, oblique or isometric views, sequence drawings, exploded views);
      • manufacturing sequence (e.g. flow diagrams, flow charts).
    • Chooses and uses appropriate tools and materials to make designed products with precision and control by measuring, marking, cutting or separating, shaping or forming, joining or combining, and finishing a range of materials accurately and efficiently.
    • Uses measuring and checking procedures while making to monitor quality and changes, and adapts designs in response to practical difficulties encountered when making the products.
    • Demonstrates knowledge and understanding of safe working practices and efficient use of materials and tools.

    • Evaluates the product or system based on self-generated objective criteria linked directly to the design brief, specifications and constraints using self-designed procedures (e.g. surveys, questionnaires, testing procedures) for self-testing, and suggests sensible improvements or modifications that would clearly result in a more effective or higher-quality end product.
    • Evaluates the efficiency of the plan of action followed, objectively demonstrates insight into the consequences of key decisions, and suggests sensible improvements.

    • Presents ideas (in a project portfolio) using formal drawing techniques, in two-dimensional or three-dimensional sketches, circuit diagrams or systems diagrams that include all of the following features:
      • use of South African conventional drawing standards (e.g. scale, outlines, dimension lines, first and third angle projection);
      • notes that clarify design reasoning and key choices;
      • impressive enhancements of significant sketches (e.g. colour, texture, shade, thick and thin lines, shadow).
    • Chooses and uses appropriate technologies to combine and organise graphics and text effectively to produce project portfolios, poster presentations, case study reports, and so on, that have a formal organised structure appropriate for the target audience.

Learning Outcome 2:  Technological Knowledge and Understanding

The learner will be able to understand and apply relevant technological knowledge ethically and responsibly.

Assessment standards

We know this when the learner:

    • Demonstrates knowledge and understanding of structures:
      • properties of materials that affect their performance in structures (e.g. mass, hardness, stiffness, flexibility, corrosion resistance, strength in tension, compression, shearing);
      • analysis (no calculations) of the effects of different loads (even/uneven, static/dynamic).

    • Demonstrates knowledge and understanding of how materials can be processed (e.g. galvanised, frozen, dried, painted, varnished, electroplated) to change or improve properties (life-span), and how recyclable materials can be re-manufactured.

    Systems and Control
    • Demonstrates knowledge and understanding of interacting mechanical systems and sub-systems by practical analysis and represents them using systems diagrams:
      • gear systems
      • belt drive or pulley systems with more than one stage;
      • mechanical control mechanisms (e.g. ratchet and pawl, cleats);
      • pneumatic or hydraulic systems that use restrictors;
      • one-way valves;
      • systems where mechanical, electrical, or pneumatic or hydraulic systems are combined.
    • Demonstrates knowledge and understanding of how simple electronic circuits and devices are used to make an output respond to an input signal (e.g. resistors, light-emitting diodes, transistors, push or magnetic switches, thermistors, light-dependent resistors).

Learning Outcome 3:  Technology, Society and the Environment

The learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships between science, technology, society and the environment.

Assessment standards

We know this when the learner:

    Indigenous Technology and Culture
    • Explores, compares and explains how different cultures in different parts of the world have effectively adapted technological solutions for optimum usefulness.

    Impact of Technology
    • Recognises and identifies the impact of technological developments on the quality of people’s lives and on the environment in which they live, and suggests strategies for reducing any undesirable effects.

    Bias in Technology
    • Produces evidence that details opinions, backed up by factual evidence, about bias (e.g. gender, age, access) in making technological decisions, and suggests strategies for redress.

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